2018

MCHAP

Typical Metro Stations - Line 2 Bahla

JBMC Arquitetura e Urbanismo

Salvador, Brazil

December 2017

PRIMARY AUTHOR

Emiliano Homrich Neves da Fontoura Beatriz Pimenta Corrêa Gabriela Assis Guerra Costa Cecília de Sousa Pires Clarice Barbieri Shinyashiki João Batista Martinez Corrêa Frederico Barros de Freitas

CONTRIBUTING AUTHOR

Sandra Mayumi Morikawa (Architect) Cynthia Sampaio de Couto Melo (Architect) Raffaella Saad Yacar (Architect)

AUTHOR

CCR Metrô Bahia

PHOTOGRAPHER

Nelson Kon Diego Viana Gomes

OBJECTIVE

The design was developed considering the need to adhere to a low budget, employing fast construction methods, minimizing debris, and minimally interfering with the city’s daily routine. The architectural concept is tightly in line with engineering decisions in the design of its constituent elements. This is due to the use of sustainable, rationalized and prefabricated construction methods to meet the rigid construction schedule. An example of this is the fact that the stations proper were developed on two floors, with the platforms located near the surface and the mezzanines on their upper decks. Pillars, girders and slabs were designed in precast concrete because of high repeatability of its parts. In order to offer passengers environmental comfort, the building covering system, with a span of approximately 23 meters, consists of self-supporting double metal tiles. Thermally and acoustically protected, these tiles are shaped in the very construction site. Tilting 10 degrees from the horizontal plane, the self-supporting steel roof sections not only provide a view of the exterior, but also promote natural lighting and ventilation, resulting in a row of vaulted sheds. Since Salvador is a city with tropical climate, station design creates large shaded areas with an abundance of cross and chimney ventilation effects, increasing thermal comfort for users. This solution presents a dynamic, unusual spatial element in station interiors, due to its shape, scale and colour scheme.

CONTEXT

Salvador, the first capital of Brazil, had its urban layout on a specific geography, formed by hills and valleys. This model of occupation was intensified after the 60s of the 20th century where, on the hills, occupation was residential, while the valleys had priority as a road transportation vector, leading to an unsustainable traffic congestion. The landscape resulting from this model is generally characterized by low occupancy density and wide range of horizons. This promotes considerable distances between the passenger catchment point and the stations. In this context, the stations are viewed at great distances, demanding a strong presence in the landscape, as a way of orientation, identification and attractiveness for users. Salvador is heir to a rich cultural condition, largely substantiated by the African and Portuguese heritage, present in all aspects of the city. In this context, the settlement of the metro system must recognize this heritage, establishing legitimacy and cultural insertion in a contemporary way, avoid stereotypes. The project, under public concession and private operation, encompasses a total of 9 typical above ground stations, 1 elevated station, 2 above ground stations under specific project conditions (including a large retrofit), 3 bus terminals, 13 kilometres of landscaped treatment with linear parks and bike path. Metro Line 2, located in the 60 meters-hide central separator of Paralela, an avenue with approximate extension of 13 km and responsible for the connection of the very dense central area in the city of Salvador, between the Central Bus Station and the Airport.

PERFORMANCE

Previously, Bahia´s Metro construction works were frozen for about ten years, raising population’s doubt that the metro system would ever be concluded. As a result of strategies from the concession -project, building and operation- the metro system became reality. At the time we developed the metro stations, it was a premise to maintain the existing walkways (designed by an important Brazilian architect, Lelé). When JBMC´s contract was finished, on July 2015, other teams continued to design the system, which included new walkways and accesses. Built in the median strip of Avenida Paralela, the new stations occupy a once idle and pedestrian-hostile area. Access to stations is through fully accessible and safe footbridges spanning both sides of the thoroughfare. The footbridges are also a connecting element with a linear park. This 13 kilometre-long park runs parallel with the railway line, boasting a bike lane, a running track and landscaping. The line 2 metro system currently sees a daily flow of over 200,000 users as all the metro stations are operating in connection with bus stations. This line was designed to reach up to 400,000 daily boarding in 2030. It has turned a once gruelling journey from downtown Salvador to the Airport into a 28-minute ride. In the past, users were forced to endure 100-minute journeys in other means of transportation. Urban transportation equipment should be seen as a catalyst of urban growth and development, creating exciting opportunities, nurturing enterprises and bringing about social change. This is what is happening in Salvador.